Please note that Wellnicity will be closed on Monday, February 17th in observance of President's Day.

25-OH Vitamin D, Total

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that occurs naturally in fish, cheese, egg yolk, and liver. It is synthesized in the skin from cholesterol after exposure to sunlight or another source of ultra-violet light. In the body, Vitamin D plays a role in immune function, it enhances the absorption of calcium for healthy bones, and supports the release and action of insulin.

25-OH Vitamin D, Total (ng/mL)

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that occurs naturally in fish, cheese, egg yolk, and liver. It is synthesized in the skin from cholesterol after exposure to sunlight or another source of ultra-violet light. In the body, Vitamin D plays a role in immune function, it enhances the absorption of calcium for healthy bones, and supports the release and action of insulin.

ABCB1 C3435T

The ABCB1 gene encodes the multidrug resistance (MDR) protein, a membrane pump that effluxes drugs from the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid. MDR is enormously important in formation of brain and gut barriers, drug and nutrient excretion, and normal development. Mutations in the ABCB1 gene are associated with a host of perturbations in an individual's response to drugs and nutrients.

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an important target for therapeutic drugs treating hypertension and heart failure. The best studied single nucleotide polymorphism in the ACE gene (rs4343) has been linked to a wide variety of human phenotypes: nephropathy and renal disease, cancer, and even sports performance. Interestingly, rs4343 is a member of a large family of human mutations called Alu elements.

ADIPOQ

ADIPOQ (Adiponectin, CQ and Collagen Domain Containing) is a gene that is expressed in adipose tissue and encodes collagens X and VIII and complement factor C1q. It plays a role in metabolic and hormone processes that control fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Defects in ADIPOQ are correlated to adiponectin deficiency.

ADRA2A

ADRA2A (Adrenergic Receptor Alpha 2A) gene that determines sensitivity of the adrenergic nervous system response. Individuals with the G allele at this location predicted to be at higher risk of sugar-induced hyperactivity, and better response to ADHD treatment with typical pharmacological interventions.

ADRB2

ADRA2A (Adrenergic Receptor Alpha 2A) gene that determines sensitivity of the adrenergic nervous system response. Individuals with the G allele at this location predicted to be at higher risk of sugar-induced hyperactivity, and better response to ADHD treatment with typical pharmacological interventions.

ADRB3

ADRB3 (Adrenoceptor Beta 3) gene that mediates catecholamine-induced activation. Located mainly in adipose tissue and plays a role in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Adrenal Cortisol I

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. If waking cortisol is low, it indicates that the adrenals do not rejuvenate overnight, resulting in feeling tired upon waking and can contribute to fatigue.

Adrenal Cortisol II

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. When cortisol drops more than 50% between 6-8 am and 12 pm this can be indicative of gastrointestinal (GI) distress.

Adrenal Cortisol III

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. An increase in cortisol at this time could be related to work stress or caffeine consumption.

Adrenal Cortisol IV

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. If cortisol is elevated in the evening it can be associated with restlessness and sleep cycle disturbances.

Adrenal DHEA + DHEA-S

DHEA is one of the main stress hormones involved in healthy hormone metabolism. DHEA is part of the stress response as it relates to cortisol, and also part of the pathway for producing sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Saliva measurement of DHEA is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress.

AGT

The AGT gene codes for the angiotensinogen protein, a key regulator of blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. Individuals carrying two copies of the rs699 C allele are at increased risk of hypertension-related disorders such as pre-eclampsia.

AHCY

Adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) is an enzyme that breaks down S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine and adenosine. Polymorphisms in this gene will lead to lower levels of homocysteine and glutathione.

Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (stool)

a protein produced primarily during the acute phases of inflammation. It serves to prevent tissue damage that can result from enzymes that are released by the immune system during an inflammatory response. Stool alpha anti-chymotrypsin levels increase at times of GI inflammation, particularly of the small intestine. High stool levels of this protein are typically associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohns disease (likely due to its tendency to affect the small intestine), but it can also be elevated in acute intestinal inflammation secondary to other causes.

AOC1

The SNP rs10156191 encodes a weaker form of the histamine degradation enzyme Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 1 (AOC1). This mutation, Thr16Met, is predicted to produce an enzyme with less catalytic activity and associated higher levels of pro-inflammatory amines like histamine and putrescine.

APOA2

APOA2 gene encodes apolipoprotein A-II, the second most abundant protein of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Defects can result in high cholesterol.

APOA5

APOA5 gene plays a role in regulating triglycerides levels by stimulating triglyceride breakdown. It also plays a role in inhibiting the livers production rate of VLDL-TG. Defects are associated with high triglycerides and hyperproteinemia type 5.

APOE- I

Individuals homozygous for the C/C allele at rs429358 may harbor the APOE E4 allele. Consult with a provider to determine APOE risk allele status.

APOE- II

Individuals homozygous for T/T at rs7412 are assumed to have the E2 allele of the gene APOE. APOE encodes a protein involved in cholesterol and lipid transport and metabolism

ATG12

Autophagy-related 12 protein is part of the core autophagy machinery inside the cell. Autophagy, a form of cellular "recycling" is necessary for many cell functions. ATG12 is specifically involved in turning off the innate immune response. Mutations in the ATG12 gene are predicted to lead to increased activity of the innate immune response, and overall inflammation.

ATG16L1- I

The ATG16L1 gene encodes a protein that is a vital component of a protein complex necessary for the cellular phenomena known as autophagy. Autophagy is the process of degrading and cleaning of inert debris of the cell. Weakness in autophagy leads to abnormal accumulation of cellular “garbage” that will eventually affect the cellular function and lead to autophagy related disease states in including many neurological and immunological diseases, DM Type 2 and fatty liver disease.

ATG16L1- II

The ATG16L1 gene encodes a protein that is a vital component of a protein complex necessary for the cellular phenomena known as autophagy. Autophagy is the process of degrading and cleaning of inert debris of the cell. Weakness in autophagy leads to abnormal accumulation of cellular “garbage” that will eventually affect the cellular function and lead to autophagy related disease states in including many neurological and immunological diseases, DM Type 2 and fatty liver disease.

ATG5

Autophagy-related 5 protein (ATG5) is an important intracellular mediator of the autophagy response. ATG5 is involved in a wide range of "quality control" features inside the cell: autophagy vesicle formation, innate immune system signaling, consumption of damaged mitochondria, and apoptosis. Mutations in the ATG5 gene are associated with numerous neurological, immunological and endocrine syndromes.

ATP5C1

ATPase 5c1 (ATP5C1) is an enzyme responsible for producing ATP (the energy component) in the mitochondria. This protein is known as Complex V ( the 5th protein) in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Polyorphisms in the gene confer a weakened energy production by the mitochondria.

Bacterial Stool Culture: Mixed Flora consists predominantly of:

Bacterial Stool Culture tests the diversity of bacteria living in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. No pathogens (a disease causing micro-organism) should be present.

Bacterial Stool Culture: Mixed gram negative rods/flora

To maintain a healthy balance of beneficial bacteria in the gut, we expect to find moderate to heavy growth of mixed gram negative bacteria in the gut. Having a healthy diversity of gram negative bacteria helps us break down our foods and achieve optimal nutrient absorption.

Bacterial Stool Culture: Mixed gram positive rods/flora

To maintain a healthy balance of beneficial bacteria in the gut, we expect to find moderate to heavy growth of mixed gram positive bacteria in the gut. Having a healthy diversity of gram positive bacteria helps us break down our foods and achieve optimal nutrient absorption.

BCOM1- I

"BCOM1 (β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase) converts beta-carotene into retinol (Vit A). Almost half of the population carry significant variants of the BCMO1 gene. There are two genetic variations of the BCMO1 gene which create significant weakness in the conversion to Vit. A. People with a T allele on both rs12934922 and rs7501331 have a 69% decreased conversion of beta-carotene to retinol. For people with only a single T in the rs7501331 SNP, the conversion is decreased by 32%. Vitamin A is a general term that covers several different forms of the vitamin. Animal food sources mainly provide retinyl palmitate, which is broken down in the intestines to retinol. In this form, it is stored by the body and then converted to an active form for use. The plant forms of vitamin A are called carotenes, such as beta-carotene which is found in abundance in carrots and other orange-colored foods. About 80-90% of the retinoids in the body are stored in the liver and used to maintain a steady level in the blood. The body then used the retinoids in a variety of ways including in stem cells, photoreceptors in the eye, epithelial cells, embryonic cells, various immune cells, red blood cells, and much more"

BCOM1- II

"BCOM1 (β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase) converts beta-carotene into retinol (Vit A). Almost half of the population carry significant variants of the BCMO1 gene. There are two genetic variations of the BCMO1 gene which create significant weakness in the conversion to Vit. A. People with a T allele on both rs12934922 and rs7501331 have a 69% decreased conversion of beta-carotene to retinol. For people with only a single T in the rs7501331 SNP, the conversion is decreased by 32%. Vitamin A is a general term that covers several different forms of the vitamin. Animal food sources mainly provide retinyl palmitate, which is broken down in the intestines to retinol. In this form, it is stored by the body and then converted to an active form for use. The plant forms of vitamin A are called carotenes, such as beta-carotene which is found in abundance in carrots and other orange-colored foods. About 80-90% of the retinoids in the body are stored in the liver and used to maintain a steady level in the blood. The body then used the retinoids in a variety of ways including in stem cells, photoreceptors in the eye, epithelial cells, embryonic cells, various immune cells, red blood cells, and much more"

BDNF

"The BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) gene encodes for a member of the nerve growth factor family of proteins. BDNF acts on both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system helping to support the survival of existing neurons and encourage the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. It is highly expressed in the brain, as well as, the retina, cochlear-vestibular system and motor neurons. Although the vast majority of neurons in the brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells in a process known as neurogenesis. BDNF helps to stimulate and control neurogenesis, as well as playing an important role in normal neural development. Binding of this protein to its cognate receptor promotes neuronal survival in the adult brain. Expression of this gene is reduced in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. This gene may play a role in the regulation of the stress response and the biology of mood disorders. Several mechanisms to increase BDNF have been discovered. These mechanisms revolve around autophagy stimulation. These include Intermittent Fasting with a single meal of 600 calories on the fast day can increase BDNF production by 50-400%. Cognitive Stimulation, Calorie Restriction, Exercise, Hormone therapy and supplements including Quercitin, Caffeine, Curcumin, Niacinamide, Lithium Oratate, Magnesium Threonate, Resveratrol, Ginseng, Theanine, Olive Leaf Extract and NAC."

C3

Essential for the immune response, C3 is a protein involved in initiation of the complement system. C3 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to asthma and other inflammatory disorders.

Campylobacter antigen (stool)

Campylobacter infection occurs in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni. It is a type of food poisoning and traveler's diarrhea. People most often get infected by eating or drinking food or water that contains the bacteria. The most commonly contaminated foods are raw poultry, fresh produce, and unpasteurized milk.

Candida spp.

This test checks for the presence of candida in stools. If candida is present in the stool there may be a systemic infection.

CD14

The CD14 protein is a macrophage cell surface receptor that binds bacterial cell wall components. As one of the initiators of the innate immune response, fully functional CD14 is necessary for normal response to potential pathogens. Mutations in the CD14 gene are associated with susceptibility to asthma and other allergen-mediated inflammatory processes.

Chymotrypsin (stool)

is one of many secretions of the pancreas. Chymotrypsin is an enzyme that serves to break down proteins in the small intestine, thereby enabling their absorption. In cases of poor pancreatic function, chymotrypsin secretion declines, resulting in low levels of chymotrypsin in the stool. Stool chymotrypsin a convenient marker of overall pancreatic output and digestive capacity.

Citrobacter spp.

Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, but are also considered opportunistic, meaning they have the potential to cause adverse effects in those who are unhealthy/weak.

Clostridium difficile: toxins A and B (stool)

Clostridium difficile (also known as C.diff) is a bacterial infection of the colon typically as a consequence of antibiotic use. When Clostridium difficile is present, it produces certain toxins that are detected by this testing (toxins A & B). C.diff infections are associated with chronic diarrhea and colitis.

Cod

Cod is a popular white flaky fish with a mild flavor.

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. COMT's main function is to inactivate neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) by the addition of a methyl group to the catecholamine. Normal COMT function allows people to rapidly reverse feelings of anxiety or depression. COMT (+/-) patients have sluggish ability to alter anxiety or depression episodes. COMT (+/+) patients are more prone to prolonged episodes of anxiety, depression and OCD.

CoQ2

CoQ2 (Para-hydroxybenzoate—polyprenyltransferase, mitochondrial) codes for an enzyme that functions in the final steps in the biosynthesis of CoQ10 (ubiquinone).. This enzyme, which is part of the coenzyme Q10 pathway, catalyzes the prenylation of parahydroxybenzoate with an all-trans polyprenyl group. Mutations in this gene cause coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Polymorphisms in this gene can lead to severe fatigue, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance and general mitochondrial weakness.

Cortisol - Evening

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm.

Cortisol - Morning

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm.

Cortisol - Night

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm.

Cortisol - Noon

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm.

Cortisol I (8 am)

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. If waking cortisol is low, it indicates that the adrenals do not rejuvenate overnight, resulting in feeling tired upon waking and can contribute to fatigue.

Cortisol II (Noon)

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. When cortisol drops more than 50% between 6-8 am and 12 pm this can be indicative of gastrointestinal (GI) distress

Cortisol III (4 pm)

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. An increase in cortisol at this time could be related to work stress or caffeine consumption.

Cortisol IV (8 pm)

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. If cortisol is elevated in the evening it can be associated with restlessness and sleep cycle disturbances.

Cortisol V (Midnight)

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. If cortisol is elevated during sleep hours it can be associated with restlessness and trouble staying asleep.

COX5A

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5a (COX5A) is a protein in a subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, also known as Complex IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Polymorphisms in this enzyme produce a weakened energy production by the mitochondria.

COX6C

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6c (COX6C) is a protein in a subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, also known as Complex IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Polymorphisms in this enzyme produce a weakened energy production by the mitochondria.

Creatinine

A measurement in urine which determines whether a sample is viable for testing (hydration/dehydration). Please note that all parameters are calculated around creatinine. Higher creatinine levels will result in lower values across the board. Lower creatinine will result in higher values across the board.

Cryptosporidium antigen (stool)

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes severe diarrhea in humans. It is usually contracted by drinking contaminated water. Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of waterborne diseases in the United States.

Cryptosporidium parvum antigen

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes severe diarrhea in humans. It is usually contracted by drinking contaminated water. Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of waterborne diseases in the United States.

Cryptosporidium parvum antigen (stool)

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes severe diarrhea in humans. It is usually contracted by drinking contaminated water. Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of waterborne diseases in the United States.

CTH

Glutathione production is dependent on the function of the enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH). CTH converts cystathionine to cysteine. Individuals with mutations in the CTH gene are predicted to have decreased glutathione-mediated detoxification.

CTLA4

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Associated protein 4 (CTLA4) is an important inhibitor of T-cell activity: CTLA4 is part of the signaling cascade that turns off overactive T cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes CTLA4 are associated with a host of diseases characterized by a heightened immune state.

CYP19A1- I

The CYP19A1 gene encodes a special member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes: aromatase. Aromatase is a membrane-bound enzyme that converts androgens to estrogen. By controlling when and where aromatase is expressed during development, the genome carefully sculpts tissue-specific estrogen-responsive phenotypes. SNPs in aromatase (rs4646) are thought to predict a wide range of estrogen-sensitivity effects such as breast cancer risk, toxicity of aromatase inhibitors, and even female pattern hair loss.

CYP19A1- II

The CYP19A1 gene encodes a special member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes: aromatase. Aromatase is a membrane-bound enzyme that converts androgens to estrogen. By controlling when and where aromatase is expressed during development, the genome carefully sculpts tissue-specific estrogen-responsive phenotypes. SNPs in aromatase (rs4646) are thought to predict a wide range of estrogen-sensitivity effects such as breast cancer risk, toxicity of aromatase inhibitors, and even female pattern hair loss.

CYP1A1 L4889G

The CYP1A1 gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. CYP1A1, also known as the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, is essential for detoxifying xenobiotics and normal hormonal metabolism.

CYP1A2

CYP1A2 gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. It plays a role in drug metabolism, xenobiotic metaboloism, and the production of cholesterol, steroids and lipids. Also promotes the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Caffiene is primarily metabolized by this gene in the liver.

CYP1B1

The CYP1B1 gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. CYP1B1 is involved in metabolizing lipids, fats, cholesterol, and steroid hormones. SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene predict risk of hormone dependent diseases and efficacy of treatments of such diseases.

CYP2B6

CYP2B6 gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. It plays a role in the drug metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, and the production of cholesterol, steroids and lipids.

DBH

DBH (Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase) is an oxidoreductase belonging to the copper type II, ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family. The encoded protein, expressed in neurosecretory vesicles catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, which functions as both a hormone and sympathetic nervous system function. Polymorphisms in this gene lower the production of norepinephrine which causes poor autonomic and cardiovascular function, including hypotension and ptosis. Polymorphisms in this gene have also been linked to Autism, ADD, bipolar disorder and major depression.

DHEA - Female

DHEA is produced by the adrenal glands and is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogens. DHEA is also a neurohormone as small quantities are produced in the brain. It has a broad spectrum of benefits including improved energy, mood, memory, increased testosterone levels, enhanced libido and immune function.

DHEA - Male

DHEA is produced by the adrenal glands and is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogens. DHEA is also a neurohormone as small quantities are produced in the brain. It has a broad spectrum of benefits including improved energy, mood, memory, increased testosterone levels, enhanced libido and immune function.

DHEA I

DHEA is one of the main stress hormones involved in healthy hormone metabolism. DHEA is part of the stress response as it relates to cortisol, and also part of the pathway for producing sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Saliva measurement of DHEA is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress.

DHEA I (8 am)

DHEA is one of the main stress hormones involved in healthy hormone metabolism. DHEA is part of the stress response as it relates to cortisol, and also part of the pathway for producing sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Saliva measurement of DHEA is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress.

DHEA II

DHEA is one of the main stress hormones involved in healthy hormone metabolism. DHEA is part of the stress response as it relates to cortisol, and also part of the pathway for producing sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Saliva measurement of DHEA is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress.

DHEA II (8 pm)

DHEA is one of the main stress hormones involved in healthy hormone metabolism. DHEA is part of the stress response as it relates to cortisol, and also part of the pathway for producing sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Saliva measurement of DHEA is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress.

DHFR

Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid. This enzyme is the second enzyme in the folic acid conversion chain. Having a mutation in this enzyme can create a methylaiton deficiency with a MTHFR mutation.

DIO2

DIO2 (Deiodinase 2) codes for an enzyme in iodothyronine deiodinase family. It catalyzes the activation, as well as the inactivation of thyroid hormone by outer and inner ring deiodination, respectively. Specifically, it is responsible for the selenium dependent conversion of T4 thyroid to T3 thyroid.

Dopamine

Is considered our focus neurotransmitter. When dopamine is either elevated or low, we can have focus issues, such as not remembering where we put our keys, forgetting what a paragraph said when we just finished reading it or simply daydreaming and not being able to stay on task. Dopamine is also involved in the reward center of the brain. Depleted levels can lead to a feeling that life is colorless, a lack of motivation for life, or seeking out extreme behaviors (addictive disorders) for stimulation. Stimulants such as medications for ADD, or drugs such as marijuana and cocaine can cause elevated excretion values of dopamine. Unfortunately, stimulating dopamine consistently can cause a depletion of dopamine over time.

DRD2

Dopamine receptor D2 is an important component of the neuroinflammation process. Activation of DRD2 signaling is thought to decrease TNFalpha release from inflammatory mast cells. Polymorphisms associated with decreased DRD2 signaling activity are predicted to lead to pro-inflammatory phenotypes.

Entamoeba histolytica Ab, SIgA (saliva)

Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogenic parasite thought to infect about 50 million people worldwide.

Enterobacter spp.

Enterobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that is commonly found in soil, water and in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, but are also considered opportunistic, meaning they have the potential to cause adverse effects in those who are unhealthy/weak.

Epinephrine

An excitatory neurotransmitter involved in the body's fight or flight response and regulates brain functions such as metabolism, heart rate, and blood pressure. This neurotransmitter will often be elevated when hyperactivity or anxiety is present. Long-term over-stimulation can cause epinephrine levels to be depleted. Epinephrine also regulates heart rate and blood pressure.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria normally live in the intestines of people and animals. Most E. coli are harmless and actually are an important part of a healthy human intestinal tract, but are also considered opportunistic, meaning they have the potential to cause adverse effects in those who are unhealthy/weak.

Estradiol (Estrogen Replacement)

Estradiol is the most potent form of estrogen that acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females. It is produced by the ovaries and adrenals and works in conjunction with progesterone during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Estradiol has a significant role in maintaining healthy bone growth and improving blood flow in coronary arteries in addition to offering neuroprotective effects

Estradiol (Synthetic HRT, Contraceptives)

Estradiol is the most potent form of estrogen that acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females. It is produced by the ovaries and adrenals and works in conjunction with progesterone during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Estradiol has a significant role in maintaining healthy bone growth and improving blood flow in coronary arteries in addition to offering neuroprotective effects

Estradiol - Male

Estradiol is the most potent form of estrogen that acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females, however in men, it plays a significant role in sexual function. Estradiol is produced in men from the conversion of testosterone through a process called aromatization and plays a role in mood regulation, libido, sexual function and sperm production.

Estradiol Premenopausal - Follicular

Estradiol is the most potent form of estrogen that acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females. It is produced by the ovaries and adrenals and works in conjunction with progesterone during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Estradiol has a significant role in maintaining healthy bone growth and improving blood flow in coronary arteries in addition to offering neuroprotective effects

Estradiol Premenopausal - Luteal

Estradiol is the most potent form of estrogen that acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females. It is produced by the ovaries and adrenals and works in conjunction with progesterone during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Estradiol has a significant role in maintaining healthy bone growth and improving blood flow in coronary arteries in addition to offering neuroprotective effects

Estradiol- Postmenopausal

Estradiol is the most potent form of estrogen that acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females. It is produced by the ovaries and adrenals and works in conjunction with progesterone during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Estradiol has a significant role in maintaining healthy bone growth and improving blood flow in coronary arteries in addition to offering neuroprotective effects.

F10;F7

The F10 gene encodes a protein, Factor X, involved in coagulation and wound healing. Mutations in the F10 gene predict for clot risk and anticoagulant drug sensitivity.

F5

A single nucleotide polymoprhism in the F5 gene (rs6025) leads to a mutant Factor V protein. This mutant protein is associated with increased clotting, especially in the veins.

FABP2 A54T

FABP2 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2) is a gene that plays a role in the uptake, intracellular metabolism, and transport of long-chain fatty acids. Also supports the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Binds saturated long-chain fatty acids and may promote energy homeostatis.

Fecal pH (stool)

measures the acidity or alkalinity of a sample. Human fecal specimens should be alkaline so if the pH is acidic, it may indicate a digestive issue such as lactose intolerance, or a GI infection.

Female Estradiol (pg/mL)

Estradiol (E2) is produced primarily in ovaries and testes by aromatization of testosterone. Small amounts are produced in the adrenal glands and some peripheral tissues, most notably fat.

Female Progesterone (pg/mL)

Progesterone belongs to a group of steroid hormones called progestogens. It is mainly secreted by the corpus luteum in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual cycle. It plays important roles in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy.

FOLR1

Folate Receptor 1 (FOLR1) is a member of the folate receptor (FOLR) family. Members of this gene family have a high affinity for folate. Polymorphisms in this gene allow for poor delivery of folate to the interior of cells. This can create a high plasma folic acid. This polymorphism does create a methylation deficiency. This polymorphism is associated with many disorders of pregnancy.

FOLR2

Folate Receptor 2 (FOLR2) is a member of the folate receptor (FOLR) family. Members of this gene family have a high affinity for folic acid. Polymorphisms in this gene allow for poor delivery of folic acid to the interior of cells. This can create a high plasma folic acid. This polymorphism does create a methylation deficiency. This polymorphism is associated with many disorders of pregnancy. This receptor is found in high quantities on the placenta, thymus and bone marrow. Can be affiliated with immune disorders.

FOXE1

FOXE1 (Forkhead Box E1) is a gene that plays a role in thyroid health. Defects may contribute to hypothyroidism.

Free T3

Refers to free or unbound triidothyronine (T3). Free T3 is the most active usable form of thyroid in the body.

Free T4

Refers to the free or unbound Thyroxine. This can help determine how well your body is converting T4 to T3, the active form of thyroid.

Free Testosterone (Male)

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, in the ovaries in women, and in the testes in men. Testosterone plays a role in healthy muscle mass, improves memory and creativity, promotes healthy libido, improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar balance, and supports healthy immune function.

FSHR

The FSHR gene encodes for a protein belonging to family 1 of G-protein coupled receptors. It is the receptor for follitropin (follicle stimulating hormone) and functions in gonadal development. Mutations in this gene cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.

FTO

FTO (FTO Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dependent Dioxygenase) is considered an obesity and fat mass gene. Defects are associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) and the development of Type II Diabetes.

FUT2

Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) is responsible for producing specific sugar groups that are secreted by the intestinal cells into the bowel to attract "good bacteria" . Polymorphisms in this gene produce "poor secreter" status. Lack of these sugars allows for gut dysbiosis and a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

GABA

An inhibitory neurotransmitter that is often referred to as nature's valium-like substance. GABA reduces excess stimulation.

GAD1- I

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD 1) is the enzyme responsible for conversion of glutamic acid (a stimulant neurotransmitter) to GABA (a calming neurotransmitter). Deficiency of GABA from polymorphisms in this enzyme are associated with sleep disorders, "half glass empty" syndrome, dysphoria, and spasticity.

GAD1- II

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD 1) is the enzyme responsible for conversion of glutamic acid (a stimulant neurotransmitter) to GABA (a calming neurotransmitter). Deficiency of GABA from polymorphisms in this enzyme are associated with sleep disorders, "half glass empty" syndrome, dysphoria, and spasticity.

GC

GC aka DBP (Vit. D Binding Protein) gene codes for Vit. D binding protein. This protein belongs to the albumin family and is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types. It is manufactured in the hepatic parenchymal cells. DBP is capable of binding to all forms of Vit D including ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecaldiferol (vitamin D3), the 25-hydroxylated forms (calcifediol) and the active hormonal product, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). The major proportion of vitamin D in blood is bound to this protein. It transports vitamin D metabolites between skin, liver and kidney, and then on to the various target tissues. It binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites and transports them to target tissues. Polymorphisms in this gene decrease the affinity of the protein to Vit. D which reduces the response rate to Vit. D therapy. Patients with these polymorphisms require high doses of Vit D supplementation.

GHRL

GHRL (Ghrelin and Obestatin Prepropeptide) is a gene that encodes the production of two peptides, ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is an appetite stimulant that is secreted when the stomach is empty. It regulates hunger, reward perception, gastric acid secretion, and gut motility. Obestain on the other hand promotes satiety, therefore decreasing food intake and reduces GI tract motility. Defects in this gene may contribute to obesity, Type II Diabetes or metabolic syndrome.

Giardia Lamblia antigen

Giardia Lamblia is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine in infected individuals. It is contracted by consuming contaminated food or water.

Giardia Lamblia antigen (stool)

Giardia Lamblia is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine in infected individuals. It is contracted by consuming contaminated food or water.

GIF

GIF (Gastric Intrinsic Factor) is a gene that plays a role in vitamin B-12 metabolism. GIF is a cofactor produced by cells in the stomach which binds to B12 and transports it through the small intestine where it is then absorbed into the blood stream. Defects in GIF can impair B-12 metabolism that may lead to low serum B-12 levels, megaloblastic anemia, neuropathy, and others.

Glutamate

An excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a major role in learning and memory. Excessive excretion amounts are associated with anxiety, impulsivity and depression.

Gluten (Gliadin) Ab, sIgA (saliva)

Gliadins are proteins found in wheat, rye, barley and other grains, which may trigger an immune reaction in some individuals. A negative SIgA response to gliadin does not rule out all adverse reactions to gluten. A positive SIgA response to gliadin may warrant further diagnostic workup and/or dietary elimination trial in some individuals. Lab results should be used in context with entire clinical picture. NOTE: Clients on a gluten-free diet who have not been exposed to gluten for 3 months or more should have a negative SIgA response to gliadin.

Glyphosate

Glyphosate is the most widely used agricultural herbicide applied to agriculture fields, forests, lawns and gardens to regulate weeds. Glyphosate is also used to ripen crops and regulate plant growth. Glyphosate is considered a non-selective herbicide meaning it will kill most plants. There are hundreds of products that contain glyphosate, but Monsantos original herbicide called Roundup (introduced in 1974) is a primary source of the chemical glyphosate. Monsanto also patented its genetically modified seeds that resist its herbicide, Roundup, offering farmers a convenient way to spray fields with Roundup without affecting crops. This also explains how genetically modified foods are also often high in the chemical glyphosate. Ranger Pro Herbicide and Eraser Max are additional products that contain glyphosate.

GPX3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family which catalyze the reduction of organic hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by glutathione. This reduction functions to protect cells against oxidative damage. The GPX3 isozyme is secreted and is abundantly found in plasma, as well as intracellularly. Downregulation of expression of this gene by promoter hypermethylation has been observed in a wide spectrum of human disease states.

GSR

The glutathione reductase (GSR) gene encodes a protein involved in metabolizing glutathione. Mutations in this gene are associated with impaired cellular redox homeostasis.

GSTM1

Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) is an important enzyme in the body's detoxification pathway. GSTM1 conjugates glutathione to molecules (drugs, environmental toxins, carcinogens etc.) bound for excretion. GSTM1 is mainly responsible for binding toxins in joints and for binding carcinogens.

GSTM3

Glutathione S-transferase mu 3 is an enzyme that detoxifies drugs, environmental toxins, and carcinogens by conjugating toxins to glutathione and subsequent excretion by the kidneys. Mutations in GSTM3 are associated with decreased clearance of toxins, anesthetics and drugs from the nervous system.

GSTP1

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that play an important role in detoxification. The glutathione S-transferase pi gene (GSTP1) functions in chemical clearance and anti-inflammatory properities. High concentration of GST-p are found in the skin, lungs, sinuses, bladder and the intestinal tract. Polymorphisms of this enzyme allow for increased inflammatory activity in these areas that include eczema, asthma, chronic sinusitis, IBS, "leaky" gut and interstitial cystitis.

HbA1c

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a marker for checking blood sugar levels. Fasting glucose will show how the body managed sugar in the blood for the past 24-hours, however HbA1c provides a way to see how the body has managed sugar in the blood over a three month period.

Helicobacter pylori Ab, (saliva)

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. H. pylori infection is common in the United States: About 20 percent of people under 40 years old and half of those over 60 years have it. Most people do not show any symptoms of H.pylori, but over time it can lead to many digestive problems such as ulcers and even stomach cancer.

Histamine

Excitatory neurotransmitter that has many roles. When values are high it may be indicative of an allergic response in the body or inflammation in the body. Histamine also controls our sleep-wake cycle, as well as our energy level.

HLA-DQA1

Major histocompatibility complex, DQ alpha 1 (HLA-DQA1) is a human gene responsible for a cell surface receptor essential to the function of the immune system. Patients with a polymorphism in this gene are at higher risk for auto-immune based inflammatory disease including Celiac disease, Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis, and gluten sensitivity.

HLA-DQA2

Major histocompatibility complex, DQ alpha 2 (HLA-DQA2) is a human gene responsible for a cell surface receptor essential to the function of the immune system. Patients with a polymorphism in this gene are at higher risk for auto-immune based inflammatory disease including Celiac disease, Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis, and gluten sensitivity.

HLA-DRB1

Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 (HLA-DRB1) is an important mediator of the adaptive immune system. HLA-DRB1 protein "presents" antigens from invading pathogens to other cells in the immune system. Mutations in this gene are associated with higher risk of auto-immunity and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

HLA-DRB2

Human leukocyte antigen DRB2 (HLA-DRB2) is a cell surface receptor involved in mediating the adaptive immune response. Mutations in HLA-DRB2 are associated with susceptibility to chronic inflammation and decreased ability to recover from toxic mold exposure.

HNMT- I

The HNMT gene encodes the histamine degradative enzyme, histamine N-methyltransferase. HNMT, in contrast to AOC1, requires the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and a complete methylation pathway for normal function. Polymorphisms in HNMT gene expression or protein coding are predicted to prolong the pro-inflammatory effects of histamine signaling.

HNMT-II

The HNMT gene encodes the histamine degradative enzyme, histamine N-methyltransferase. HNMT, in contrast to AOC1, requires the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and a complete methylation pathway for normal function. Polymorphisms in HNMT gene expression or protein coding are predicted to prolong the pro-inflammatory effects of histamine signaling.

HSD3B2

The HSD3B2 gene codes for an enzyme that is absolutely crucial for normal metabolism of all steroid hormones. Common SNPs in this gene (rs6211, rs6208) predict increased risk of hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

HTR2

5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2 (HTR2) is one of the neuronal receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin. Mutations in the HTR2 gene are associated with individual response to antidepressants, appetite, and mood.

IDO1

IOD1 (indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1) codes for a heme enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism to N-formyl-kynurenine. This enzyme acts on multiple tryptophan substrates including D-tryptophan, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, tryptamine, and serotonin. This enzyme is thought to play a role in a variety of pathophysiological processes such as neuropathology and immunoregulation. Buildup of tryptophan can cause apoptosis of T cells and a decrease in T regulatory cell numbers.

IL13

IL13 (Interleukin 13) is a member of the interleukin family of chemical messengers of the immune system. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with changes in IL13 gene expression and increase the risk of more severe inflammatory responses to allergens.

IL1B

Interleukin 1B is the pro-inflammatory cytokine responsible for inducing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression in the central nervous system. COX2 enzymatic function leads to prostanoid signaling that increases pain sensation associated with inflammation. Mutations in the IL1B gene are associated with many chronic inflammation disorders.

IL2

IL2 (Interleukin 2) codes for a secreted cytokine that is important for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. Overall, the polymorphism of IL4 produces a robust inflammatory response to allergic stimuli which can be associated with severe allergic symptoms, immune cancer risk and bowel inflammation.

IL23R

A/A and A/G genotypes at rs11209026, a polymorphism in the Interleukin 23 Receptor gene (IL23R), provide a protective effects against Crohn's disease.

IL2RA

Polymorphisms in a non-protein coding region of the Interleukin 2 Receptor subtype A (IL2RA) are associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis in some populations.

IL4

" IL4 (Interleukin 4) codes for a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T cells. The interleukin 4 receptor also binds to IL13, which may contribute to many overlapping functions of this cytokine and IL13. The STAT system, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, has been shown to play a central role in mediating the immune regulatory signal of this cytokine. Overall, the polymorphism of IL4 produces a robust inflammatory response to allergic stimuli which can be associated with severe asthma, allergies, chronic sinusitis, as well as, migraines and bowel inflammation."

IL5

The protein product of the Interleukin 5 gene (IL5) is important for normal development of B lymphocytes and eosinophils (a pro-inflammatory white blood cell). Inactivating mutations in the IL5 gene are associated with susceptibility to certain viral infections and increased aggression of inflammatory response. These polymorphisms are also associated with increased aggression of allergies, asthma and eosinophilia.

IL6

Interleukin 6, IL6, is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. Polymorphisms in this gene leads to a more aggressive inflammatory response. Patients with IL-6 mutations require assistance with inflammatory control.

Klebsiella spp.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans, but are also considered opportunistic, meaning they have the potential to cause adverse effects in those who are unhealthy/weak.

LEPR

LEPR (Leptin Receptor) is a gene that encodes a receptor protein for leptin, a fat cell specific hormone that regulates body weight and is involved in fat metabolism. It plays a role in regulating appetite to reduce food intake and increase energy consumption. Defects are associated with obesity and pituitary dysfunction.

LPL

The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene encodes a protein involved in the breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids. Mutations in the LPL gene are associated with many disorders of metabolism.

Lysozyme (stool)

is an enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. It also serves as an antibacterial defense in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Lysozyme found in a stool sample can be an indication of an infection and/or inflammation in the gut.

MAO-A

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is one of the classic neurotransmitter degradation enzymes. By degrading serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, MAO-A ends neuronal signaling induced by those neurotransmitters. Mutations in the MAO-A gene leads to decreased degradation of these neurotransmitters and can be associated with increased aggression, mood disorders and drug addiction.

MAO-B

Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO B) catalyzes the neuroactive amines, such as dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and plays a role in the stability of mood in the central nervous system,. MAO B's primary purpose is to degrade dopamine. Patients who possess polymorphisms of MAO B have a higher risk of clinical depression and mood disorders.

MCM6

A mutation in a DNA control region located in the MCM6 gene is associated with expression of the lactase gene. Individuals homozygous for this polymorphism are more likely to have hypolactasia, or lactose intolerance.

Metabolic Cortisol

Saliva measurements of the body's main stress hormone, cortisol, is used to gain insight into how the body responds to stress. In a healthy individual, cortisol should be higher in the morning and gradually taper off throughout the day. This pattern is referred to as the circadian rhythm. Low morning cortisol may be an indicator of metabolic dysfunction.

Metabolic Testosterone Female

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, in the ovaries in women, and in the testes in men. Testosterone plays a role in healthy muscle mass, improves memory and creativity, promotes healthy libido, improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar balance, and supports healthy immune function.

Metabolic Testosterone Male

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, in the ovaries in women, and in the testes in men. Testosterone plays a role in healthy muscle mass, improves memory and creativity, promotes healthy libido, improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar balance, and supports healthy immune function.

Metabolic TSH

TSH or Thyroid Stimulating Hormone is a hormone sent by the pituitary gland in the brain to the thyroid gland signaling it to make more thyroxine (T4) hormone.

Microscopy Yeast

This test checks for the presence of yeast in stools. Undigested yeast may appear during microscopic analysis. These findings are typically associated with poor digestion and do not represent an invasive or infective state of the yeast organism observed, but rather that the yeast is from the diet. However, if yeast is found in this analysis combined with the stool culture for yeast, then there may be a systemic infection.

MTHFD1

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase 1 enzyme handles 2 significant enzymes conversions in the production of L-MTHF. This common polymorphism causes a significant methylation deficiency due to the fact that it is utilized in two steps in methyl-folate production.

MTHFR- 1

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the bioactive form of folic acid. Two significant polymorphism variants exist in this gene, the A1298C and the C677T. The 1298 confers a conversion weakness of 10% for one copy and approximately 20% for two copies. In contrast, the 677 variant is much more severe and conveys a 40% conversion weakness for one copy and 70% for two copies. A reduced level of MTHFolate produces significant biochemical effects including poor production of dopamine and serotonin, pregnancy complications, poor healing of the nervous system, weak mitochondrial function, reduced production of glutathione, poor cell turnover and poor function of T cell lymphocytes.

MTHFR- 2

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the bioactive form of folic acid. Two significant polymorphism variants exist in this gene, the A1298C and the C677T. The 1298 confers a conversion weakness of 10% for one copy and approximately 20% for two copies. In contrast, the 677 variant is much more severe and conveys a 40% conversion weakness for one copy and 70% for two copies. A reduced level of MTHFolate produces significant biochemical effects including poor production of dopamine and serotonin, pregnancy complications, poor healing of the nervous system, weak mitochondrial function, reduced production of glutathione, poor cell turnover and poor function of T cell lymphocytes.

MTHFS

MTHFS (methenyletetrahydrofolate synthase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, a precursor of reduced folates. This polymorphism codes for a decreased function of the enzyme and results in poor utilization of Leucovorin (5-formyltetrahydrofolate).

MTR

MTR (Methionine Synthase) codes for the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in methionine biosynthesis. Polymorphisms in this gene lead to poor recycling of methionine from homocysteine. This enzyme work in coordination with MTRR and requires both MTHF and B12 for proper functioning. Deficiencies in Methionine leads to poor methylation that is associated with numerous neurological, cardiovascular and immunological disease states, as well as, infertility and birth defects.

MTRR- 1

Methionine Synthase Reductase is a enzyme responsible for production of methionine, a very important amino acid. Polymorphisms in this enzyme requires an increased amount of Methyl B12 to help this reaction.

MTRR- 2

Methionine Synthase Reductase is a enzyme responsible for production of methionine, a very important amino acid. Polymorphisms in this enzyme requires an increased amount of Methyl B12 to help this reaction.

NAT2

N-Acetyl Transferase 2 (NAT2) is a liver enzyme that functions to both activate and deactivate drugs and carcinogens. Polymorphisms in this gene are divided into rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylator phenotypes. The slow polymorphism phenotype of NAT2 are also associated with higher incidences of cancer and drug toxicity.

NDUFS3

The NDUFS3 genes encodes a mitochondrial enzyme, NADH Dehydrogenase (Ubiquinone) Fe-S Protein 3. Like other NDUFS proteins, NDUFS3 is thought to require ubiquinone for full activity.

NDUFS7

NADH Dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7 (NDUFS7) is a mitochondrial protein also know as Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is the largest of the five complexes of the electron transport chain. Polymorphisms in this enzyme produce a weakened energy production in the mitochondria.

NDUFS8

NADH Dehydrogenase (Ubiquinone) Fe-S Protein 8 (NDUFS8) encodes an enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mutations in the NDUFS8 gene are associated with Leigh Syndrome, osteoporosis, and mitochondrial complex I deficiency.

NOD2/CARD15

NOD2 is a protein that integrates extracellular sensing of bacterial cell wall components with intracellular pro-inflammatory signaling to the nucleus. Mutations in the NOD2 gene are associated with poor ability to recognize abnormal bacterial pathogens in the intestinal tract and increased risk of intestinal dysbiosis.

Norepi/Epi Ratio

Provides insight into how well the body is coping with stress (adrenal glands). Ratios less than 3 can cause restlessness and/or be due to over-training. Ratios greater than 6 may indicate stress, tiredness, lack of focus, lack of energy & motivation, and burn out.

Norepinephrine

An excitatory neurotransmitter that is responsible for stimulatory processes in the body. Norepinephrine also converts epinephrine. This neurotransmitter can cause anxiety at elevated excretion levels, as well as some mood dampening effects. Low levels of norepinephrine are associated with low energy and decreased focus ability.

NOS2

Nitric Oxide Synthanse 2 (NOS2) is responsible for producing nitric oxide, a biologic mediator used by the nervous system, immune system and in blood vessel function. Polymorphisms in this enzyme can cause reduced immune system function, exercise intolerance and fatigue.

Occult Blood

Aims to detect subtle blood loss in the gastrointestinal tract, anywhere from the mouth to the colon. Positive tests may result from either upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding and warrant further investigation.

Occult Blood (stool)

is the measure of blood in a stool sample that may not be visible to the naked eye, but its presence indicates a potential problem in the digestive tract.

OPRM1 A118G

The OPRM1 (mu opioid receptor) is involved in pain sensitization. Polymorphisms in this gene typically are more sensitive to chronic pain and require higher doses of opioids for pain control.

Other Bacteria spp. Identified

This test checks for other bacteria species in the stool. No pathogens (a disease causing micro-organism) should be present.

Other Yeast Identified

This test checks for the presence of other yeast species in stool. If yeast is present in the stool there may be a systemic infection.

Ova & Parasites X 3 (stool)

No Ova or Parasites should be detected.

Ova & Parasites, x2 (Stool)

No Red Blood Cells (RBC's), White Blood Cells (WBC's), Ova, or Parasites should be detected. If yeast is present in this parameter, it is an indication of growth after the sample was collected (due to dietary supplements, transport conditions, etc.), and not an indicator of yeast overgrowth in the GI tract.

PARK2 (Parkin)

PARK2 is a protein involved in normal turnover of damaged or old proteins inside the cell. Mutations in the PARK2 gene are associated with heritable Parkinson's disease.

PPARA

PPARA (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha) is a gene that regulates many processes in the body including immune and vascular function, inflammation, as well as lipid, carbohydrate and nutrient metabolism. Defects in PPARA are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, metabolic syndrome, Type II Diabetes, and fatty liver disease.

PPARG

PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma) is a protein coding gene that is expressed in endothelial cells, adipose tissue and vascular smooth muscle. It plays a role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, energy storage, inflammation and the immune response. Defects in this gene are associated with obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Progesterone (Oral Medication)

Progesterone is mainly produced in the ovaries and known to be involved in maintaining normal menstrual cycles, early stages of pregnancy and the development of female reproductive structures. Progesterone also binds to certain receptors in the brain creating a sense of calmness which can improve the sleep cycle.

Progesterone (Synthetic HRT, Contraceptives)

Progesterone is mainly produced in the ovaries and known to be involved in maintaining normal menstrual cycles, early stages of pregnancy and the development of female reproductive structures. Progesterone also binds to certain receptors in the brain creating a sense of calmness which can improve the sleep cycle.

Progesterone (Topical/Troche/Vaginal)

Progesterone is mainly produced in the ovaries and known to be involved in maintaining normal menstrual cycles, early stages of pregnancy and the development of female reproductive structures. Progesterone also binds to certain receptors in the brain creating a sense of calmness which can improve the sleep cycle.

Progesterone - Male

In men, progesterone acts as a precursor to testosterone and is produced in the testes and adrenal glands. As men age, the testosterone levels decrease, estradiol increases, and progesterone levels decline. Low progesterone levels in men can cause problems like weight gain, low sex drive, hair loss, depression or erectile dysfunction.

Progesterone - Postmenopausal

Progesterone is mainly produced in the ovaries and known to be involved in maintaining normal menstrual cycles, early stages of pregnancy and the development of female reproductive structures. Progesterone also binds to certain receptors in the brain creating a sense of calmness which can improve the sleep cycle.

Progesterone / Estradiol Ratio

The ideal ratio of progesterone/estradiol ranges from 100-500 in premenopausal women, and 150-1000 in pre and postmenopausal women supplementing with oral or topical progesterone (excludes postmenopausal women with low estrogen levels and women on synthetic hormones (oral contraceptives or conventional hormone replacement therapy-HRT).

Progesterone Premenopausal - Follicular

Progesterone is mainly produced in the ovaries and known to be involved in maintaining normal menstrual cycles, early stages of pregnancy and the development of female reproductive structures. Progesterone also binds to certain receptors in the brain creating a sense of calmness which can improve the sleep cycle.

Progesterone Premenopausal - Luteal

Progesterone is mainly produced in the ovaries and known to be involved in maintaining normal menstrual cycles, early stages of pregnancy and the development of female reproductive structures. Progesterone also binds to certain receptors in the brain creating a sense of calmness which can improve the sleep cycle.

Progesterone/Estradiol Ratio

The ideal ratio of progesterone/estradiol ranges from 100-500 in premenopausal women, and 150-1000 in pre and postmenopausal women supplementing with oral or topical progesterone (excludes postmenopausal women with low estrogen levels and women on synthetic hormones (oral contraceptives or conventional hormone replacement therapy-HRT).

Proteus spp.

Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans, but are also considered opportunistic, meaning they have the potential to cause adverse effects in those who are unhealthy/weak.

Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that have an opportunistic relationship with humans, meaning they have the potential to cause adverse effects in those who are unhealthy/weak.

Serotonin

Is considered the master neurotransmitter. When it is out of range, symptoms can arise, such as depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive thoughts and behaviors, carbohydrate cravings, PMS, difficulty with pain control and sleep cycle disturbances. Occasionally, none of these symptoms will occur when serotonin is low- there will simply be lethargy (lack of energy). Adequate amounts of serotonin are necessary for a stable mood and to balance any excessive excitatory (stimulating) neurotransmitter firing in the brain. If you use stimulant medications or caffeine in your daily regimen, it can cause a depletion of serotonin over time.

Shiga toxin (stool)

is a toxin produced by certain strains of bacteria that are pathogenic such as Escherichia coli. The presence of this toxin in the stool may indicate an infection in the digestive tract.

SLC19A1

The SLC19A1 gene encodes the reduced folate carrier (RFC) protein. Mutations in the RFC are associated with reduced plasma folate.

SLC23A1

SLC23A1 (Solute Carrier Family 23A1) codes for an enzyme that functions as a sodium dependent Vit. C transporter. This enzyme functions a one of the two enzymes responsible for the absorption of vitamin C and its distribution to organs in the body. Polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to Vit. C deficiency and additionally to Glaucoma.

SLC30A8

The SLC30A8 (Solute Carrier Family 30A8) polymorphism that codes for a less efficient zinc efflux transporter that can result in the accumulation of zinc in intracellular vesicles. This gene is expressed at a high level in the pancreas and in the macula. Allelic variants of this gene confer susceptibility to diabetes mellitus and poor response to zinc containing supplements for macular degeneration.

SLC5A6

SLC5A6 (Solute Carrier Family 5A6) codes for an enzyme that is responsible for transport of pantothenate (B5) and biotin (B7). This polymorphism can affect both intestinal uptake, cellular delivery and transplacental vitamin transport. Both pantothenate and biotin are very important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, carbon dioxide transport and in gluconeogenesis. Most symptoms of weakness in this enzyme can cause hair loss, skin rash, brittle nails and tingling of the extremities.

SLC6A4

The SLC6A4 gene encodes the serotonin transporter, also known as SERT. The serotonin transporter is responsible for clearing the serotonin neurotransmitter from the synaptic space. SERT is the target of many therapeutic drugs. Polymorphisms in the SLC6A4 gene are associated with increased risk of anxiety and depression and less effective response to SSRI medications.

Slow T4/T3 conversion

More than 90% of thyroid hormone produced in the body is the inactive form, T4. When T4 is slow to convert to the more active thyroid hormone, T3, it can contribute to low thyroid symptoms such as cold hands/feet/nose, weight gain despite regular exercise, brittle hair and nails, dry skin, bowel irregularity, and mood issues. This slow conversion can occur when the adrenals are stressed (or when cortisol levels are not optimal), but also when there is inflammation present. Inflammation can damage cell membranes where the conversion of T4 to T3 occurs. Nutrients such as iodine, zinc, magnesium and selenium support thyroid hormone production as well as the conversion of T4 to T3. Foods rich in these nutrients include sea and green vegetables, Brazil nuts, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, and lentils.

SOCS-1

Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 is an intracellular protein that is a member of the STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) family that is necessary to curb pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. Mutations in SOCS1 are predicted to prolong inflammatory responses, thereby requiring assistance with inflammatory control.

SOD1

SOD1 (Superoxide Dismutase 1) plays a role in the production superoxide dismutase, an enzyme present in cells throughout the body. It binds copper and zinc, two minerals involved in the destruction of free superoxide radicals.

SOD2

Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2)is a member of the iron/manganese mitochondrial superoxide dismutase family. This protein transforms toxic superoxide, a byproduct of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. This function allows SOD2 to clear mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, as a result, confer protection against mitochondrial damage and cell death.

SOD3

Cytomplasmic Superoxide Dismutase 3 (SOD3) is a member of the superoxide dismutase family. This protein transforms toxic superoxide, a byproduct of certain cellular functions, into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. This function allows SOD2 to clear and confer protection against mitochondrial damage and cell death.

SRD5A1

The SRD5A and SRD5A1 genes encode different versions of 5-alpha-reductase. 5-alpha-reductase is an enzyme that converts testosterone to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Common SNPs in the SRD5A genes predict for sensitivity to hormone replacement therapy.

STAT4

The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 4 (STAT4) gene encodes a transcription factor that responds to extracellular growth factors and cytokines. Mutations in the STAT4 gene are associated with inflammatory disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Stool Culture for Yeast

This test checks for the presence of yeast in stools. If yeast is present in the stool there may be a systemic infection.

SYN1

SYN1 (Synapsin) codes for Synapsins that are responsible for synaptogenesis and the modulation of neurotransmitter release, suggesting a potential role in several neuropsychiatric diseases. This member of the synapsin family plays a role in regulation of axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. Mutations in this gene may be associated with X-linked disorders with primary neuronal degeneration such as Rett syndrome. Additionally, polymorphisms in this gene are associated with numerous neurological conditions, as well as, decreased recovery potential for neurological insults.

Taenia solium (tapeworm) Ab, sIgA (saliva)

Taenia solium (tapeworm) is a parasite typically contracted from consuming raw or under cooked pork.

TCN1

The protein product of the transcobalamin 1 (TCN1) gene binds Vitamin B12 and protects it from the low pH environment of the human stomach. Individuals homozygous for the G allele of the TCN1 SNP, rs526934, are predicted to have lower serum B12.

TCN2

The protein product of the Transcobalamin 2 gene, TCN2, binds the active form of vitamin B-12. Individuals with the G/G phenotype at rs1801198 have decreased serum B-12 and increased homocysteine when compared to individuals with the C/C phenotype.

Testosterone - Female

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, in the ovaries in women, and in the testes in men. Testosterone plays a role in healthy muscle mass, improves memory and creativity, promotes healthy libido, improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar balance, and supports healthy immune function.

Testosterone - Male

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, in the ovaries in women, and in the testes in men. Testosterone plays a role in healthy muscle mass, improves memory and creativity, promotes healthy libido, improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar balance, and supports healthy immune function.

Testosterone - Male (Topical HRT)

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, in the ovaries in women, and in the testes in men. Testosterone plays a role in healthy muscle mass, improves memory and creativity, promotes healthy libido, improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar balance, and supports healthy immune function.

Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOab)

Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is an enzyme involved in the production of thyroid hormones by mobilizing iodide for the attachment to tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin for the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine or T4). Approximately 90% of hypothyroid issues are autoimmune related. TPO is the most common marker elevated with autoimmune thyroid.

Thyroid/adrenals

Thyroid health and adrenal function are directly linked to each other. Studies show that thyroid hormone imbalances may be caused by adrenal fatigue. As the adrenal glands become tired due to stress, over training, eating a poor diet and lack of sleep, the body begins to down regulate metabolism to conserve energy. This can result in thyroid hormone imbalance symptoms such as cold hands/feet/nose, weight gain despite regular exercise, brittle hair and nails, dry skin, bowel irregularity, and mood issues. Studies also show that thyroid hormone imbalances can cause adrenal fatigue by forcing cortisol to over excrete, causing the endocrine system to become depleted.

TNF- I

Tumor necrosis factor, TNF, is an important pro-inflammatory signaling molecule. Polymorphisms in the protein coding part of this gene are associated with more severe pro-inflammatory responses and require supplementation for inflammatory control.

TNF- II

Tumor necrosis factor, TNF, is an important pro-inflammatory signaling molecule. Polymorphisms in the protein coding part of this gene are associated with more severe pro-inflammatory responses and require supplementation for inflammatory control.

Total Intestinal sIgA (stool)

Intestinal secretory Immunoglobulin A (or sIgA) is a marker of the immune system in the mucosal lining of the digestive tract. It is used to monitor for intestinal inflammation and mucosal immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. sIgA production is driven by exposure to antigens (pathogens or foods particles). This is our first-line defense against gut pathogens like bacteria, food proteins, parasites, fungi, toxins and viruses. A high or low value for SIgA is an indication of a stressed immune system.

Toxoplasma Ab, SIgA (saliva)

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that causes toxoplamosis. It can be spread by eating contaminated foods or from blood to blood contact (such as from sharing needles).

TPH2

" TPH2 (Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2) gene catalyzes the first and rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5HT), an important hormone and neurotransmitter. Mutations in this gene have been shown to be associated with psychiatric diseases such as bipolar affective disorder, anxiety and major depression. Polymorphisms in this gene are also correlated to an increased response rate to SSRI medications. This enzyme requires tetrahydrobiopterin and niacin as co-factors."

TRAF-1

TRAF1 (TNF Receptor Activation Factor 1) is produced by T cells and functions as an “off switch” for Toll like receptors and Janus Kinase. Polymorphisms of this gene are associated with chronic inflammation and can be associated with chronic Epstein Barr infections.

Trichinella spiralis Ab, sIgA (saliva)

Trichinella spiralis is a nematode parasite that is responsible for the disease trichinosis.

Trichrome Stain

The trichrome stain fluoresces the sample making the organism components more apparent under the microscopes various fields of magnification.

TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)

A hormone sent by the pituitary gland in the brain to the thyroid gland signaling it to make more thyroxine (T4) hormone.

TTPA- I

"This gene encodes a soluble protein that binds alpha-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, with high selectivity and affinity. This protein plays an important role in regulating vitamin E levels in the body by transporting vitamin E between membrane vesicles and facilitating the secretion of vitamin E from hepatocytes to circulating lipoproteins. Mutations in this gene cause vitamin E deficiency. "

TTPA- II

"This gene encodes a soluble protein that binds alpha-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, with high selectivity and affinity. This protein plays an important role in regulating vitamin E levels in the body by transporting vitamin E between membrane vesicles and facilitating the secretion of vitamin E from hepatocytes to circulating lipoproteins. Mutations in this gene cause vitamin E deficiency. "

TTPA- III

"This gene encodes a soluble protein that binds alpha-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, with high selectivity and affinity. This protein plays an important role in regulating vitamin E levels in the body by transporting vitamin E between membrane vesicles and facilitating the secretion of vitamin E from hepatocytes to circulating lipoproteins. Mutations in this gene cause vitamin E deficiency. "

UQCRC2- I

Ubiquinol Cytochrome c Reductase (UQCR, Complex II) is a mitochondrial enzyme protein also known as Complex III of the electron transport chain. Polymorphisms in this enzyme produce a weakened energy production by the mitochondria.

UQCRC2- II

Ubiquinol Cytochrome c Reductase (UQCR, Complex II) is a mitochondrial enzyme protein also known as Complex III of the electron transport chain. Polymorphisms in this enzyme produce a weakened energy production by the mitochondria.

VDR

The Vitamin D (calcitriol) Receptor is a member of the nuclear receptor family. Upon activation by vitamin D ( a secosteroid), the VDR causes the activation or deactivation of protein production by the cell. Impaired vitamin D function can result in significant immune weakness and increased cancer risk, as well as, early bone loss, an increased risk of cognitive decline and mood disorders.

Vitamin D [25(OH)D]

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that occurs naturally in fish, cheese, egg yolk, and liver. It is synthesized in the skin from cholesterol after exposure to sunlight or another source of ultra-violet light. In the body, Vitamin D plays a role in immune function, it enhances the absorption of calcium for healthy bones, and supports the release and action of insulin.

Vitamin D [25(OH)D] (ng/mL)

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that occurs naturally in fish, cheese, egg yolk, and liver. It is synthesized in the skin from cholesterol after exposure to sunlight or another source of ultra-violet light. In the body, Vitamin D plays a role in immune function, it enhances the absorption of calcium for healthy bones, and supports the release and action of insulin.

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